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จักรพรรดิออกัสตัส

อ่าน 2972 | ตอบ 2

จักรพรรดิปกครองโรม

          หลังจากซีซาร์เสียชีวิตลง ผู้นำโรมันหลายคนพยายามที่จะได้มาซึ่งอำนาจ หนึ่งในคนเหล่านี้ คือ เหลนและบุตรบุญธรรมของซีซาร์ ชื่อ ออกเตวีอัน หรือ ออกตาเวียน

ออกัสตัสเป็นจักรพรรดิองค์แรกของกรุงโรม แต่พระองค์ไม่ได้ใช้ชื่อนั้น เขาชอบที่จะถูกเรียกว่า 'พลเมืองคนแรก (first citizen)' เขาได้บูรณะบางแง่มุมของการบริหารแบบสาธารณรัฐ  วุฒิสมาชิก กงสุลและผู้พิทักษ์สิทธิของประชาชน ได้ดำรงตำแหน่งอีกครั้งหนึ่ง แต่ออกัสตัสมีอำนาจเหนือพวกเขาทั้งหมด
ออกัสตัสบริหารบ้านเมืองเป็นอย่างดี เขานำภูมิภาคภายใต้การควบคุมและเสริมสร้างความเข้มแข็งการป้องกันจักรวรรดิ เขายังได้เริ่มระบบข้าราชการพลเรือน ซึ่งเป็นกลุ่มของเจ้าหน้าที่ที่ได้รับการว่าจ้างจากรัฐ ข้าราชการพลเรือนโรมันจัดเก็บภาษี ตรวจตราระบบไปรษณีย์และการจัดการอุปทานธัญพืช
ออกัสตัสยังได้สร้างและตกแต่งกรุงโรมใหม่ เขาได้สร้างวิหารใหญ่ โรงละครและอนุเสาวรีย์ เขาถูกเปลี่ยนอาคารที่เป็นอิฐเก่า ๆ  มากมายมาเป็นอาคารที่มีโครงสร้างทำจากหินอ่อน ภายใต้การปกครองของออกัสตัส โรมกลายเป็นเมืองหลวงของจักรวรรดิอย่างงดงาม

สันติภาพแห่งโรม รัชสมัยของออกัสตัสเริ่มเป็นช่วงระยะเวลานานแห่งสันติภาพและเสถียรภาพในจักรวรรดิโรมันเรียกว่าPax Romana หรือ'สันติภาพโรมัน'  Pax Romana กินเวลานานประมาณ 200 ปี ในช่วงเวลานี้ จักรวรรดิได้แผ่ขยายขนาดยิ่งใหญ่ที่สุด ประมาณสองล้านตารางไมล์
ภายใต้ปกครองของออกัสตัส กองทัพโรมันเป็นกองทัพที่มีกำลังพลสำหรับการต่อสู้ที่ยิ่งใหญ่ที่สุดในโลก ผู้ชายประมาณ 300,000 คนเข้าประจำการในกองทัพ พวกเขารักษาเขตแดนของจักรวรรดิ พวกเขายังได้สร้างถนน สะพานและอุโมงค์ช่วยเชื่อมอาณาจักรเข้าด้วยกัน นอกจากนี้ ออกัสตัสได้สร้างกองทัพเรือโรมันที่แข็งแกร่ง ซึ่งลาดตระเวนทะเลเมดิเตอร์เรเนียน ด้วยวิธีนี้โรมก็สามารถสร้างอำนาจและอิทธิพล ให้รู้สึกไปทั่วโลกในทะเลเมดิเตอร์เรเนียน

ผู้สร้างประวัติศาสตร์

ออกัสตัส (63 ปี ก่อนคริสต์ศักราช – คริสต์ศักราชที่ 14)

รูปปั้นออกัสตัส
 
           ในขณะที่ยังเป็นเด็ก ออกัสตัสเป็นคนอ่อนแอและขี้โรค เขายังคงได้รับทุกข์ทรมานจากความเจ็บป่วยตลอดชีวิตของเขา แต่เขาก็ยังมีชีวิตยืนนานและกลายเป็นนักปกครองที่เกรียงไกรแห่งจักรวรรดิที่ยิ่งใหญ่
แม้จะมีพลังอำนาจมหาศาล ออกัสตัสก็ชอบที่จะแสดงตัวเองว่าเป็นพลเมืองธรรมดาที่มีรสนิยมที่เรียบง่าย เขาอาศัยอยู่ในบ้านหลังเล็ก ๆ และนอนหลับอยู่ในห้องนอนขนาดไม่ใหญ่ไปกว่ากระท่อม เขาสวมเสื้อคลุมธรรมดาทอโดยภรรยาของเขา อาหารโปรดของเขาก็เป็นอาหารของคนธรรมดา คือ ขนมปัง เนยและมะกอก ออกัสตัสยังเชื่อมั่นในประมวลศีลธรรมที่เข้มงวด เขาได้ส่งลูกของตัวเองออกไปเพื่อไม่ให้อาศัยอยู่จนถึงหลักเกณฑ์นี้
ออกัสตัสเคยพูดว่าเกียรติสูงสุดของเขาคือการได้รับเรียกว่าบิดาของประเทศจากชาวโรมัน แต่หลังจากที่เขาเสียชีวิตชาวโรมันบูชาออกัสตัสเป็นพระเจ้า
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